# D flip flop

As we know in RS flip flop R=S=1 and R=S=0 these two states are prohibited to use. To overcome this condition the D flip flop is introduce. The D flip-flop has only one input referred to as the D input, or data input, and two outputs as usual Q and Q’. It transfers the data at the input after the delay of one clock pulse at the output Q. So in some cases the input is referred to as a delay input and the flip-flop gets the name delay (D) flip-flop. It can be easily constructed from an S-R flip-flop by simply incorporating an inverter between S and R such that the input of the inverter is at the S end and the output of the inverter is at the R end. We can get rid of the undefined condition, i.e. S = R = 1 condition, of the S-R flip-flop in the D flip-flop. The D flip-flop is either used as a delay device or as a latch to store one bit of binary information. The truth table of D flip flop is given in the table in Figure 7.23. The structure of the D flip-flop is shown below which is being constructed using NAND gates.

Case 1. If the CLK input is low, the value of the D input has no effect, since the S and R inputs of the basic NAND flip-flop are kept as 1.

Case 2. If the CLK = 1, and D = 1, the NAND gate 1 produces 0, which forces the output of NAND gate 3 as 1. On the other hand, both the inputs of NAND gate 2 are 1, which gives the output of gate 2 as 0. Hence, the output of NAND gate 4 is forced to be 1, i.e., Q = 1, whereas both the inputs of gate 5 are 1 and the output is 0, i.e., Q’ = 0. Hence, we find that when D = 1, after one clock pulse passes Q = 1, which means the output follows D.

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